RESEARCH PROJECT TOPIC ON THE INCIDENCE OF INFECTION OF THE DISEASE COCCIDIOSIS IN BROILER CHICKENS FROM IN AND AROUND AURANGABAD CITY
Coccidiosis is an important enteric parasitic disease of poultry associated with significant economic losses to poultry farmers worldwide. This survey was conducted from June 2014 through July 2015 with the main goal of investigating the prevalence and associated risk factors of coccidiosis among village and exotic breeds of chickens in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria.
A total of 600 fecal samples from live and slaughtered birds comprising 284 young, 141, growers and 175 adult birds; 379 male and 221 female birds; 450 exotic and 150 local breeds of birds were randomly collected either as bird’s fresh droppings or cutting open an eviscerated intestine of slaughtered birds, while noting their age, sex, and breeds. Samples were analyzed using standard parasitological methods and techniques.
An overall prevalence rate of 31.8% (95% confidence interval: 28.07-35.52) was obtained. Higher prevalence rates were recorded in growing birds 58.9% (50.78-67.02), female birds 35.3% (29.00-41.60), exotic birds 42.4% (37.83-46.97), and broiler birds 68.7% (61.28-76.12). Similarly, higher infection rates were also observed among birds sampled from Mairi ward 66.7% (56.03-77.37), intensive management system 46.5% (41.61-51.39), and constructed local cages 54.0% (46.02-61.98). The difference in prevalence of coccidiosis among age groups, breeds, among exotic breeds, sampling sites, husbandry management systems, and litter management systems was statistically significant (<0.0001). However, no significant difference (p>0.05) of infection rates was observed in sex.
Coccidiosis is endemic in both commercial and backyard poultry farms in Maiduguri due to poor management practices encouraging Eimeria oocysts build-up. It is therefore, recommended that poultry farmers should practice strict biosecurity measures on their farms, creating awareness on the prevalence of coccidiosis, routine vaccination against coccidiosis and educating poultry farmers on the need for maintaining good hygienic standards and good flock health management.
In Nigeria like in most developing nations, chickens are the most important class of the poultry species in terms of number and rate of investment in poultry production . The exotic breeds are usually managed intensively either in battery cages or deep litter system of management, while the village chickens are reared extensively; where they are allowed to scavenge food for survival. Poultry’s meat and eggs continue to be the major sources of protein for the rapidly expanding population worldwide. This is due to low production costs as compared with livestock farming and absence of religious restrictions on the poultry meat in both developing and developed nations. Poultry coccidiosis has been reported as a major constraint to successful commercial and backyard poultry farming due to its significant high mortality rates and huge economic losses globally.
Poultry coccidiosis, caused by the protozoan parasite of the genus Eimeria, remains one of the most important parasitic diseases in poultry industry worldwide. Several studies established the prevalence and economic importance of coccidiosis as a major parasitic disease in both local and exotic breeds of poultry worldwide. The prevalence of coccidiosis was reported in many countries such as Iran , Egypt , Ethiopia , India South Africa and Nigeria
About 1800 Eimeria colonize and infect the intestinal tract of different animals and birds  and infection with this parasite normally occurs through ingestion of feed or water contaminated with sporulated oocysts . About nine species of Eimeria have been recognized in domesticated chickens, of which Eimeria brunette, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria tenella are the most pathogenic; Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria mitis, Eimeria mivati are the less pathogenic and Eimeria praecox and Eimeria hagani are the lesser pathogenic . Coccidiosis resulting from the pathogenic Eimeria species is usually characterized by dysentery, enteritis, diarrhea, which may be bloody with certain Eimeria species, emaciation, lower feed conversion rate, delayed sexual maturity, drooping wings, poor growth and low production with attendant high mortality and morbidity rates . The most common and pathogenic species that affects the poultry industry globally is the E. tenella , with 100% morbidity and a high mortality due to extensive damage of the digestive tracts of chickens . Mortality rates are usually high in young chicks, because most of the Eimeria species affects birds between the age of 3 and 18 weeks
The occurrence of different Eimeria species combinations and the intensity of infection vary considerably, both locally and globally High incidence of coccidiosis is usually observed in poultry managed under intensive management system like deep litter due to increased likelihood of high oocysts accumulation in the littersFurthermore, higher stocking densities have been linked with increased incidence of coccidiosis due to a higher rate of infection and transmission of the coccidian oocysts in dense flocks from one poultry house to another Indiscriminate use of anticoccidial drugs in feed and water has led to serious drug resistance problems
The traditional control of coccidiosis mainly relies on chemoprophylaxis, which appeared to be effective in the last decades. However, the increased occurrence of resistance against routine anti-coccidial drugs has left the poultry industry with a renewed challenge for coccidiosis prevention and control and propelled the search for alternative strategies among which vaccination is of major importance There are currently few studies on the prevalence and risk factors associated with the occurrence of poultry coccidiosis in Maiduguri, despite the fact that majority of the populace practice backyard poultry farming for petty cash. More so, the increasing demand of chicken as a source of protein (meat and egg) by the increasing human population saw an unprecedented growth and expansion of the poultry industry in Maiduguri. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of coccidiosis among exotic and village chickens as well as identify the risk factors associated with its occurrence in Maiduguri.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of Content——–vii
1.0 Introduction ——-1
1.1 Statement of Problem——4
1.2 Purpose of the Study——5
1.3 Significance of Study——8
1.5 Scope of Study——-11
2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12
2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19
3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22
3.1 Population ——–22
3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22
3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23
3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23
3.5 Data Analysis——-23
4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24
4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25
4.2 Discussion of Results——38
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation –40