Insurgency and nigerian foreign image in international community.





This work provides an analysis of the impact of insurgency on Nigeria’s foreign image with particular reference to the present activities of Boko Haram insurgents in Nigeria. The emergence of Boko Haram insurgence in Nigeria opened a new chapter in the history of insurgency/militancy in Nigeria. It has, for instance, brought with it suicide bombing and senseless killings of innocent citizens to the shores of Nigeria; a thing that was hitherto alien to the Nigerian clime. The once peaceful and respected nation suddenly became associated with terrorism and terrorists activities. Furthermore, Nigeria’s attempt to check the menace of the Boko Haram insurgency group, received condemnations from some countries and human rights organisations on the ground of human rights abuse by the Nigerian armed forces. While there is a strong possibility of an external link and support for the terrorists, the country is faced with investor’s apathy on the other hand. Accordingly, this paper examines the Boko Haram insurgency and its attendant impact on the image of Nigeria in the international system. The paper however suggests that for the “war against terror” to be effective, the Nigerian government must liaise with the governments of all neighbouring countries and indeed the entire West African sub-region in a coordinated manner. In this way, it would be able to wage a successful war against the insurgents, in addition to supports from other partners from the international community.


Title Page———i




Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11


Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38


Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation  –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50




1.1 Background of the Study

National image is a psychological objective of foreign policy. Positive image building and good image substance are among other determinants that determines the level of influence and relevance of a nation in international politics. Therefore, the positive perception of any country’s image is an important gauge for judging her standing in the international political system. A good image translates to respect, influence, and prestige and to some extent economic prosperity, as this will encourage prospective foreign investors. On the other hand, a bad or negative perception of a country’s image indicates that such a country loses respect, influence and prestige in the comity of nations. As a result, every nation tries to build, maintain and enhance their images in relation to other nations. The factors that determine a nation’s image can be both internal and external. Internally, a succession of regimes of bad policies and practice can lead to bad image; and externally, it could be through participation in foreign military and humanitarian missions. An image problem usually occurs when there are both internal and external factors that sway the pendulum towards a bad/negative image.

Egwemi (2010:131) notes that, Nigeria’s external image has swung between periods of extreme positivity to periods of extreme negativity. Over time, Nigeria’s image in the comity of nations have been characterized with times of good (1960-1967, 1970-1983 and 19992007), and bad periods (1993-1999, 2007-2014). Successive governments in Nigeria, have committed huge resources to foreign agencies to launder her badly damaged image arising from such factors as corruption, nepotism, ethno-religious fundamentalism, authoritarianism, advance fee fraud (also known as 419), human trafficking, electoral malpractices, internet fraudster, the hanging of Ken Saro-Wiwa and the nine Ogoni environmental activists and involvement of Nigerians in other forms of trans-national criminal activities. The Niger-Delta crisis which was devastating impacted negatively on the image of Nigeria in the international system (Ademola, 2006:14) and on its national economy.

In recent years, terrorist activities of the Boko Haram insurgent group in North Eastern Nigeria have been a cause for concern to the Nigerian state, Nigerians and the world at large. The group drew the attention of Nigerians and that of the international community following series of violent attacks in Nigeria since July 2009 (Ola, 2013:3). The sequence of events informed the US African Command (AFRICOM) commander General Caryter Hamin in September of 2011 to list Boko Haram as one of the three African terrorist groups. In June 2012, the US government named three leaders of the sect as global terrorists and on November 2013, the United States’ Department of States added the Nigerian based Jihadist group, Boko Haram and its splinter faction known as Ansaru, to the list of foreign terrorist organisations and specially designated Global terrorist entities (Vanguard, November 2013). This meant that Nigeria is now listed as a country where terrorism thrives; this posture has impact on the nation’s external image.

Consequently, the focus of this paper is on the impact of Boko Haram insurgency on Nigeria’s external image. The objective of the paper was addressed through detailed documentary review of secondary sources of information which was sourced through extensive use of specialised libraries of the Nigerian Institute of International Affairs (NIIA) and the Nigerian Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies (NIPSS). The hermeneutic method of data analysis was used in interpreting the meaning of the text while triangulation validity technique was employed to ensure validity and credibility of data collected. Triangulation of data provided the opportunity for the researchers to synthesize data from various recorded sources, by examining multiple documents over and over again which enable us identify repeated patterns that are common to the data collected. In that case, it enhances sufficient detail and ensured an in-depth analysis of the data, as it enable us corroborates different data sources that result to similar findings and subsequently reliable analysis of data. The first section of this study examines Nigeria external image in historical perspective; the second section looked at the evolution of the Boko Haram sect, the third section examines the Internationalisation of terrorism by Boko Haram and the fourth section examined how Boko Haram insurgency impacts on Nigeria’s external image.

1.2   Statement of the Research Problem

The major areas affected by the Boko-Haram insurgency in Nigeria are the three north-eastern states of Adamawa, Borno and Yobe states. Other states like Bauchi, Kano, Kaduna and the federal capital territory were also significantly affected by the crisis. However, on a whole the Nigerian society has suffered greatly from the impact of Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. The insurgency has also influenced international perspective of the Nigerian society.  The study particularly examines the negative effects of insurgency on Nigeria’s foreign image.

1.3   Research Questions

In view of the above research problem, the specific research questions to be addressed in this study is: What is the impact of Book Haram insurgency on Nigeria’s ’foreign image?

1.4   Aim And Objectives

The general aim of this study is to determine the effect of Boko Haram insurgency on Nigeria’s foreign image. The specific objectives include:

  1. To examine acts of insurgency in Nigeria
  2. To examine the causes and effects of Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria.
  • To determine the impact of Boko Haram insurgency on Nigeria’s foreign image.

1.5 Significance and Justification of the Study

Boko-Haram insurgency in northeast Nigeria has attracted a lot of scholarly attention (Sani S. 2015, Alozieuwa S. H. 2012, Okoli, A. C., &Iortyer, 2014, Aghedo, I, &Osumah, O. 2012 and Osumah, O. 2013). However, most of the works conducted have either focused on the causes of the crisis or attempted to evaluate the government‟s response to the crisis at the national level. For example, Otegwu (2016) and Jae (2017) are recent works that both examined the management of the Boko-haram insurgency; but their emphasis was on the role of the federal government. Indeed, very few studies have focused on the impact of Boko Haram insurgency on Nigeria’s foreign image. The study thus represents a micro analysis of the negative impact of insurgency on Nigeria’s international image.

1.6   Scope of the Study

The Boko-Haram insurgency in Nigeria gained national and international attention in 2009; even though the group had been in existence since 2003. Since 2009, the federal government of Nigeria and the international community has taken various steps in addressing the crisis. Yet, the insurgency though largely suppressed, continues to engage in sporadic attacks in northern Nigeria. This study focuses on the impact of Boko Haram insurgency on Nigeria’s foreign image.

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