The Nutritional Management Of People Living With Peptic Ulcer (A Study Of Mgbirichi Health Centre In Ohaji L.G.A)

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RESEARCH PROJECT TOPIC ON THE NUTRITIONAL MANAGEMENT OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH PEPTIC ULCER (A STUDY OF MGBIRICHI HEALTH CENTRE IN OHAJI L.G.A)

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and Interpretation of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

ABSTRACT

Peptic ulcer disease is a disorder in the gastrointestinal tract. It is caused by an increase in stomach acid. There are only a few studies on peptic ulcer disease in Africa. This study also aimed to determine the current prevalence and associated factors of PUD in Mgbirichi Health Centre, Ohaji L.G.A, Imo State.

A simple random sampling technique was used to recruit two hundred and fifty nine diagnosed with Peptic Ulcer (PUD) , aged 20-28  years (106 males, 153 females).  They were investigated in a descriptive cross-sectional study.  A pretested interview administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on the sociodemographic factors, and housing conditions. Their nutritional status was also determined to identify factors associated with PUD.

The majority (51.7%) were aged 20-23years while about half were from the middle socioeconomic class. The overall prevalence of PUD was 49.0% in 259 patients. The age specific rates were 52.0% in patients age 20-23 years, 43.3%  were age 24-26 years and 4.7% in the age group 27-28 years. PUD was associated with underweight malnutrition (p = 0.003).

In conclusion, PUD is generally associated with underweight malnutrition and can be properly managed by adequate nutritional management. Thus, PUD are particularly common with  those who are underweight. Routine screening of underweight citizens  is recommended. The long term effectodf PUD on the  health of people in Ohaji L.G.A needs to be further evaluated.

 

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a gastrointestinal disorder that occurs as a result of developing a hole or sore within the lining of stomach, or duodenum, which forms the first part of the ileum (small intestine) (Lin et al., 2015). This is caused by high increase in the gastric acid found in the stomacPUDPUD poses a serious medical problem to humans, and it affects millions of people in their everyday lives. It increases the morbidity and mortality rates throughout the world’s population (Siddique, 2014). For example, approximately 4 million people have peptic ulcer disease in the United States, and about 350,000 new cases of PUD are diagnosed each year (Siddique, 2014).Peptic ulcer disease has been identified as the most common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract.

The incidence of this disease is constantly increasing in developing countries, while it has decreased in developed countries (Al-Zubeer et al., 2012). PUD has continued to be a serious socio-medical challenge in the world (Konturek et al., 2003). The reasons behind the decrease of peptic ulcer incidence in developed countries have been attributed to the early detection  and treatment of the disease (Al-Zubeer et al., 2012). Other factors that have led to the decline in the PUD in developed countries include increase in hygiene and sanitation in the food services sector; as well as increase in health awareness in developed countries. However, the reasons for the increase in PUD among developing countries are not yet clear. PUD poses life-threatening problems, such as ulcer perforations and bleeding in the gastrointestinal tracts (Konturek et al., 2003).

In the last decades of the 20th Century, the morbidity and mortality rates of peptic ulcer disease were very high worldwide, but remarkable developments in the field of epidemiology reduced the prevalence and the incidence of peptic ulcer in the world’s population (Malfertheiner, Chan, & McColl, 2009). These epidemiological developments, including tracking of diseases and outbreaks, are used to determine the mode of transmission of diseases. The development in epidemiology also determines whether a disease is zoonotic, chronic, or pathogenic (Malfertheiner et al., 2009). The epidemiological development further involves the identification of health indicators, determinants of diseases, and demographic information, which are quantifiable evidence used by epidemiologists and other health researchers in describing the health situation of a particular population (World Health Organization, 2000).

1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The research questions for this study include:

  1. What is the relationship between socio-demographic factors and prevalence of Peptic Ulcer?
  2. What is the relationship between nutritional status and the management of Peptic Ulcer?

1.4 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

General Aim

To determine the nutritional management of people living with peptic ulcer (A study of Mgbirichi Health Centre in Olhaji L.G.A).

Specific Objectives

  • To determine the relationship between socio-demographic factors and prevalence of Peptic Ulcer
  • To determine the relationship between nutritional status and the management of Peptic Ulcer.

1.5 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

Considering the rate of spread of the obesity PUD and the plethora of associated diseases, , PUD can be considered as a highly-challenging public health problem requiring an integrated population approach to halt its continuous impact. Furthermore, the complexity of the pathogenesis of PUD which involves complex interactions between genetics, diet, and environmental factors, means that there will be no one-size-fits-all solution that will apply to every culture, race and nationality of the world. While socioeconomic status has an inverse relationship to PUD in a high-income well-educated population in Europe, it has a direct correlation to PUD in  a similar population in sub-Saharan Africa.  This implies that other interacting factors modulate the impact of socioeconomic factors on PUD in any given community. It then becomes imperative that the epidemiological factors operating in any given society must be well-understood as well as the relative interactions between the actors before an effective strategy can be formulated to curb PUD within the population.

Nigeria is a highly-populated nation, being the most populous country in Africa and the most populous black country in the world, with a total population of more than 160 million people. At least one in every five blacks in Africa is a Nigerian. The country is at the moment in the early phases of demographic and nutritional transition, common to many sub-Saharan African countries. The strength of health care delivery in Nigeria and indeed Africa is in prevention and obesity is a preventable condition. Socio-behavioral and environmental modifications are essential components of PUD prevention and management.  Tackling PUD at the national level in Nigeria will present particular challenges that will require a good understanding of the epidemiological factors and their relative contributions to the development of PUD.  Knowledge of risk factors of PUD in any given setting will go a long way in helping to evolve preventive strategies relevant to the environment and other similar settings. It is expected that data from this study will provide relevant information that will aid the evolution of policies on prevention of PUD in Nigeria

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