RESEARCH PROJECT TOPIC ON DETERMINANTS OF CHILDHOOD IMMUNIZATION IN IDOHA COMMUNITY
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Immunization remains one of the most important public health interventions and a cost effective strategy to reduce both the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases. An estimated three million deaths are prevented through immunization each year worldwide.1 . In spite of this measures, vaccine preventable diseases remain the most common cause of childhood mortality in an estimated three million deaths each year.
Uptake of vaccination services is dependent not only on provision of these services but also on other factors including knowledge and attitude of mothers,3,4 density of health workers,5accessibility to vaccination clinics and availability of safe needles and syringes. Assessing immunization practice and coverage help to evaluate progress in achieving programme objectives and in improving service delivery.7 Such positive evidence is required for continuing support from donor-supported initiatives like global alliance for vaccine and immunization GAVI.7
National programme on immunization aims at delivering the primary immunization series to at least 90% of infants.8 However, inadequate levels of immunization against childhood diseases remain a significant public health problem and reasons for non-uptake of immunization services are poorly understood. Immunization coverage is non uniform throughout the country with rural area presenting significantly lower coverage9 and thus contributing to the circulation of wild measles and other immunization preventable disease10. The effectiveness of immunization programme in resource-poor setting can be influenced by factors such as coverage of health workers, the existence and quality of outreach services, the quality of the cold chain, the liaison of communities with health services, the existence of population movements and several other factors that are related to the vaccines in use, to health services or to communities. The relative effect of each factor may vary according to geographical area.8,11-13 In the immunization programme exercise, the understanding of the local customs, believe and tradition is crucial to develop and implement appropriate solutions.
The growing slum population in the developing world is an increasing challenge. Reports show that 60% of individual who reside in most cities in the developing countries live in the urban slum.10Most slum lack good access roads and are denied adequate health care due to unavailability of proper health care services.
New estimates in “Levels and trends in child mortality report 2015 UNICEF DATA,” that although the global progress has been substantial, 16 000 children under 5 still die every day. It equally shows that under-five deaths have dropped from 12.7 million per year in 1990 to 5.9 million in 2015. This is the first year the figure has gone below the 6 million mark.16 Vaccine preventable disease have caused more than 20 percent of death for children under the age of five years. From international comparative data Nigeria’s immunization coverage rates are among the worst in the world .17