PERCEPTION OF PREMARITAL SEXUAL RELATIONSHIP AMONGST STUDENTS IN TERTIARY INSTITUTION A CASE STUDY OF DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY ABRAKA
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This study is centred on the “Perception of Premarital Sexual Relationship amongst Students in Tertiary Institutions. The challenges of premarital sexual relationship have attracted concern; this is due to the various social issues that it generates. The understanding here is that, premarital sexual relationship comes with its own dangers and if not properly handled may lead to several social problems. More so, the theory of planned behaviour was used to explain premarital sexual relationship and its occurrence amongst undergraduate students. To achieve the stated objectives of the research, data were collected using the questionnaire as an instrument. These data were analysed using the simple percentage statistical tool in order to attain clarity. From the findings of the research, it was concluded that premarital sexual relationship amongst students has assumed an alarming proportion and that premarital sexual relationship is now part of the social life of students and at such, students see nothing wrong in it. Consequently, it was recommended that, early sexual education should be given to children, regular campaign and public sensitisation on premarital sexual relationship should be carried out and that parents, government and the general public should take it upon themselves to contribute their own quota to the education and reduction of premarital sexual relationship.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page .. .. .. i
Certification .. .. .. ii
Dedication .. .. .. iii
Acknowledgements .. .. .. iv
Abstract .. .. .. vi
Table of Contents .. .. .. vi
Chapter One: Introduction
- Background of the Study .. .. .. 1
- Statement of the Problem .. .. .. 6
- Objectives of the Study .. .. .. 9
- Research Questions .. .. .. 9
- Significance of the Study .. .. .. 10
- Scope of the Study .. .. .. 11
- Operational Definition of Concept .. .. .. 14
Chapter Two: Literature Review and Theoretical Framework
2.1 Introduction .. .. .. 16
2.2 Premarital Sexual Activity of Student .. .. .. 20
2.3 Factors Affecting Student Sexual Behaviour .. .. 21
2.3.1 Age .. .. .. 23
2.3.2 Academic Performance and Education .. .. 24
2.3.3 Exposure to Mass Media .. .. .. 25
2.3.4 Knowledge on Sexuality and Reproductive Health Issues 27
2.3.5 Socio-Economic Status of Parents .. .. .. 30
2.3.6 Living Environment .. .. .. 31
2.3.7 Parent-Child Communication .. .. .. 32
2.3.8 Communication with Friends .. .. .. 33
2.3.9 Relationship with Opposite Sex .. .. .. 35
2.4 Premarital Sexual Activity in various Societies .. 37
2.5 Theoretical Framework .. .. .. 44
2.5.1 Theory of Planned Behaviour .. .. .. 42
Chapter Three: Research Methods
- Introduction .. .. .. 46
3.2 Design of the Study .. .. .. 46
3.3 Population of the Study .. .. .. 47
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique .. .. .. 47
3.5 Research Instrument .. .. .. 48
3.6 Method of Data Collection .. .. .. 48
3.7 Method of Data Analysis .. .. .. 49
Chapter Four: Data Presentation, Analysis and Discussion of Result
4.1 Introduction .. .. .. 50
4.2 Data Presentation .. .. .. 51
4.3 Discussion of Findings .. .. .. 62
Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary .. .. .. 65
5.2 Conclusion .. .. .. 66
5.3 Recommendations .. .. .. 67
REFERENCES .. .. .. 69
APPENDIX .. .. .. 76
1.1 Background of the Study
Sexual behaviour or indulgence to sex among undergraduate students and young adults nowadays are one of the great concerns of our society (Donovan, 2007). Sexuality is an instinct imprinted into the genes of each living creature. Attraction of the opposite sex has been the key factor behind reproduction and survival of each species. Most of the species are born with only seasonal sexual necessities. They mate and reproduce only at limited times a year. Human beings, on the other hand, have active sexual instincts throughout his/her life; right from the day he/she discovers his/her sexuality in pre-adulthood. This instinct has found overpowering the cultural advancement we have gained over the past (Wikipidia, 2007).
Sexuality is only sexuality for all other animals, but human beings have restricted forms of sexuality like pre-marital sexuality and extra-marital sexuality. The main reason behind introducing this restriction is that unlike all other animals we live in a civilised society with strict norms of morality and cultural obligations. The society always long for nature relationships and mutual respect between each member of this society. The main goal behind bringing in the sexual restrictions is that each member of this society should be treated with dignity and not as instruments of fulfilling lust. Sexuality, in particular, is a major area of concern for young adult and individuals or families of childbearing age (Pilliteri, 2003).
Having sex for the first time at an early age is often associated with unsafe sex, in part through lack of knowledge, lack of access to contraception, lack of skills and self-efficacy to negotiate contraception, having sex while drunk, or inadequate self-efficacy to resist pressure (Donovan et al., 2007). Such risky behaviours might result to unfavourable consequences like unwanted pregnancy, illegal abortion, and acquiring STD or the Sexually Transmitted Diseases through sexual contact (AEGIS, 2005). These consequences entail lots of underlying problems. It is like a domino effect that often leads to guilt.
According to Tumangday (2005), parents should be the primary source of their children’s knowledge and value about sex. Parents possess a great deal of knowledge about sexuality, but don’t know how to answer every question about what their kids might ask. There is also a quotation that says “if you don’t teach your children about sex, who will?” It is said that family is also the foundation of one’s personality and perception. Today family influences come too weak and thus peers’ influences along with the media dominate most of the youth. Premarital sex (PMS) is indeed very rampant nowadays. Students tend to engage themselves in high-risk sexual behaviours. Irrational behaviours like this often result to guilt.
Premarital sexuality is any sexual activity with an opposite sex partner or with a same sex partner before he/she has started a married life. The term is usually used to refer the intercourse before the legal age of a marriage. Adults who presumably marry eventually also fall under this definition (Regnerus and Uecker, 2011). Modern societies don’t appreciate premarital lovemaking for various reasons. Lovemaking is no more considered an outflow of the natural sexual instincts among human beings. We see it as a necessary obligation to share the romance between married couples and also as a medium to fulfil the social responsibility of giving birth to the next generation. Sexuality is not an instrument of enjoying lustful pleasure for human beings, at least. In premarital sex, many a times, immature human beings explore the sexuality, just out of curiosity, and might be are unaware of the consequences. Society has forbid premarital sex from the very outlook that adolescence is the time to form oneself as mature and responsible human being and not at all a time to procreate (Burbank, 2007).
Sex in itself, is not wrong at any age; but premarital sex may harm the mental development of adults in several forms. Premarital sexual experiences, many a times, leads to the misconception that sex is to be enjoyed at whatever ways possible. Forced premarital lovemaking will lead to mental depression and dilemma. Another danger is possible exchange of diseases; as premarital partners may not be aware of diseases that spread through intercourses. Getting pregnant through premarital sex is another disaster. Emotional imbalances and guilt feeling could be the result of most premarital sexual affairs (Carl, 2013). Premarital sex is not approved by any modern society, yet stories of adolescent fathers and mother come out largely, especially from the highly civilised European nations. Modern lifestyle has open multiple opportunities for boys and girls to interact closely and deeply in public and private. They have ample changes to experiment the sexuality which they witness through internet and television (WHO, 2005).
Sexuality is defined as the sum of the physical, functional, and psychologic attributes that are expressed by one’s gender identity and sexual behaviour, whether or not related to the sex organs or to procreation (Anderson and Anderson, 2002). Therefore, sexuality entails how an individual act, feel and think regarding one’s self when it comes to understanding gender role. Premarital sex is synonymous to the word fornication, the sexual intercourse between two people who are not married to each other (Anderson and Anderson, 2002). For sexual health to be attained and maintained, the sexual rights of all persons must be respected, protected, and fulfilled. According to Clark (2006), peer group is an important factor in young adult development and has some bearing on teenagers’ decision about sex. Young adult is a period of exploration and experimentation, but young people often lack the knowledge, experience, and maturity to avoid the grave risks that confront them. Researchers at the University of Texas at Austin discovered many more motives for sexual intercourse; the researchers identified four major categories: physical, emotional, social and psychological motives (Kienlen, 2007).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There had been much discussion in the press about the gradual erosion of moral values among youth. Much concern had been raised over the rising number of youths who hold permissive values towards premarital sex, and the increasing proportion of youths who engage in sexual activities, or sex-related activities, such as visiting pornographic websites, that might potentially result in actual sexual activities.
Premarital sex is not approved by any modern society, yet, stories of young adult fathers and mothers come out largely especially from the highly civilised Nations. Modern lifestyle has opened multiple opportunities for boys and girls to interact closely and deeply in public and private. They have ample chances to experiment the sexuality which they witness through internet and television.
Parents should be the primary source of their children’s knowledge and values about sex. Parents possess a great deal of knowledge about sexuality, but don’t know how to answer every question about what their kids might ask. There is also a quotation that says “if you don’t teach your child about sex, who will?” It is said that family is also the foundation of one’s personality and perception. Today’s family influence comes too weak and thus peers’ influences along with media dominate most of the youth. Premarital sex is indeed very rampant nowadays. Students tend to engage themselves in high-risk sexual behaviours (Tumangday, 2005).
Sex in itself, is not wrong at any age; but premarital sex may harm the mental.