HERDSMEN BRUTALITY: A THREAT TO LIFE AND SOCIO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA (A case study of Buruku and Ayangba local government area)
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1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Crime rate and other forms of crises have increased overtime in Nigeria. a lot of effort has been put together to resolve the issue of crise and other forms of conflict in Nigeria.
According to Hellstrom, 2001; Niemella et al, 2005) stated that the incessant resource conflicts witnessed in the tropics have resulted in loss of lives, properties and environmental degradation as a also witnessed in some developed countries such as Balhans.
This incidence is now a household name among the West African countries including Nigeria.
(Thebaud and Batterburry, 2001) in their research stated that the Fulani Herds men have borne a large proportion of the blame for most conflict and environmental degradation in policy statements in the Guinea Savannah region of West African states.
The Fulani herdsmen brutality that was experienced lately in Benue state was a result of fighting space for grazing land. It is evident from the instructions from the president of Nigeria that each stated must provide a grazing space for the Fulani herdsmen; which resulted to conflict in most of the rural areas in Nigeria as a result of high level of illiteracy and greed.
According to Berger (2003) stated that there is a need for grazing movements to access pasture resources across regions in order to ensure food security for the herds. Hence, pastures, woody vegetation, water resources and land are taken as a common property resource.
Most of the local government area in Benue and Kogi State has had a terrible experience lately as a result of crises over grazing space. It was reported that the complex land-use system that has changed markedly over time, has culminated in the present day tension and conflicts between herds man and host communities.
Jibo et al. (2001) reported that the Benue Valley region in Nigeria had witnessed violent conflicts enough to attract both State and National attention. Crops, livestock’s, water resources and other vegetal resources played key roles in the development, maintenance and projection of socio-economic strength of a society (Schama, 1996). The Fulani herdsmen livelihood strategies had resulted in conflicts over the destruction of crops. The environmental degradation is perceived to be contributing enormously to the deterioration in ecosystem services to the environment of various communities. It is to this regard that study wishes to use Buruku local and Anyangba government area of Benue and Kogi State respectively as the case study.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
What really instigated the study was as result of threat pose by the activities of the Fulani herdsmen on lives and socioeconomic development in Nigeria. It is evident that the constant change in complex land-use system has culminated in the present day tension and conflicts between herds man and host communities.
Secondly the level of illiteracy in most of the communities has significant effect on the effectiveness of communication among the fulani herdsmen and the members of the various communities. The ongoing incidence has resulted to lost of lives, damage of crops, livestock and environmental degradation.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the research work is to examine the effect of herdsmen brutality on the lives and socio economic development in Nigeria. Other specific objectives of the study include:
To examine the effect of herdsmen brutality on the people of Buruku and Ayangba local government area.
To investigate on the major causes on conflict between the people of Benue and the Fulani herdsmen
To examine the relationship between herdsmen brutality and the socio economic development in Nigeria
To discuss the roles of community heads in the resolution of conflicts between Fulani herdsmen and the people of Buruku and Ayangba local government area
Tp proffer solution to the issue of conflict in Nigeria
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The study came up with research questions so as to ascertain the above stated objectives. The specific research questions for the study are stated below as follows:
What is the effect of herdsmen brutality on the people of Buruku and Ayangba local government area?
What are the major causes on conflict between the people of Benue and the Fulani herdsmen?
Is there any relationship between herdsmen brutality and the socio economic development in Nigeria?
What are the roles of community heads in the resolution of conflicts between Fulani herdsmen and the people of Buruku and Ayangba local government area?
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: there is no significant relationship between herdsmen brutality and the socio economic development in Nigeria
H1: there is significant relationship between herdsmen brutality and the socio economic development in Nigeria
H0: herdsmen brutality has no significant effect on the people of Buruku and Ayangba local government area
H1: herdsmen brutality has significant effect on the people of Buruku and Ayangba local government area
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study heardsmen brutality and socio economic development in Nigeria will be of immense benefit to the people of Benue (Buruku local government area) and Kogi state (Ayangba local government area), the study will also be of great benefit the local government, the state government, students and other researchers as it will discuss the causes of conflicts in Nigeria and ways to resolve the ongoing issues in Nigeria.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study herdsmen brutality, a threat to life and socio economic development in Nigeria is limited to Buruku and Ayangba local government of Benue and Kogi states respectively.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
BRUTALITY: savage physical violence; great cruelty
SOCIO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: Is the process of social and economic development in a society
HERDSMEN: The owner or keeper of a herd or of herds; one employed in tending a herd of cattle
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